And then they must somehow be struck, because there is no further syntagma, further …

And then they must somehow be struck, because there is no further syntagma, further …

This is how that ́li arises, in which, at first glance, the stress has shifted in the opposite direction compared to already ·.

NP: Is there any way to explain why the first syllable is preferred?

AZ: That’s right, I was waiting for this question. In this regard, I will say the following: what is the explanation in our life, especially in the humanities? It is for some fact to find the previous fact from which it will flow. This will be called an explanation. But about this previous fact, you can always ask: why is he? Do you understand? And then you can ask about the previous fact of the second rank, third, fourth, tenth – and so, generally speaking, up to the foundations of the universe. So, roughly speaking, I do not know how to answer your question. I know only one step deeper – but, generally speaking, you can ask about two, or maybe a million. Because that event will also have its own reason. As you know, all the first causes should not be known by us, but only by the highest knowledge.

E. V. Paducheva: Oh, Rose, or … you won’t be mine?

AZ: Well, this is, of course, an imitation of Odessa. In that dialect, this is no longer a union, but an interrogative word of the type perhaps, thereby no longer unstressed.

NP: And before that … in the monuments did they put stress on some unstressed words, and above or they put stress on the second and – above or, in the monuments?

A.Z .: Yes, this is also a correct question. I think that in the monuments of, say, the 16th century, this was not yet unstressed. Of course, there are as many cases as you want when the stress is not worth it, but I cannot judge whether it is a pure omission of the stress mark or unstressed. The important thing is that there are enough examples where the stress is, and then it is only or ·.

N.P .: The point is that these unstressed words can appear before an introductory parenthesis …

A.Z .: Well, of course …

NP: No, they can be used not in an isolated position, but can stand before the parenthesis. And then they must somehow be struck, because there is no further syntagma, further …

A.Z .: Well, I see. But you understand that there will be one in two hundred such cases, as you say.

NP: I am giving an example of a line from Onegin: Or (but this is no joke). So my question is …

AZ: Can you imagine with what probability the text of such a structure will be found in the monuments of the 16th century?

I.I. and others: Andrei Anatolyevich, there is just or! There is just or, there is iambic …

NP: There is an iambic line. That is, most likely, in the 18th – early 19th centuries, they could say with an emphasis on the second syllable …

A.Z .: Oh, in this sense?

N.P .: Yes.

AZ: Yes, here I completely agree with you. It had to be like this.

N.P .: That is, if you said that in the 18th century it was already entrenched …

A.Z .: I roughened up the picture when I told you that until the end of the 17th century, either it was, and then that’s it. This, by the way, does not happen.

N.P .: That is, after all we say this line or – but this is a rare case of reaccentuation …

AZ: I did not understand your pathos. But you are absolutely right.

NP: This is a rare case of re-accentuation in the lines of poetry … that very poetry …

A.Z .: And here it is not over-accentuation – just an old accentuation.

NP: And only here they spoke with the old – and did not see violence against the language.

A.Z .: Right. Yes, I think so. This is a good example, indeed, I did not know him, did not know that this opportunity could still reach Pushkin. He has some other examples that are really quite suitable …

NP: With or?

AZ: No, no, on another occasion, where it is clear that a very old stress could suddenly remain, and it is not at all some kind of special poetic liberty.

NP: I suspected that this line was then uttered by Eli (but this is no joke) and it was not some kind of violence.

AZ: Yes, yes, undoubtedly so. This is a very good example. Thank! Great. All! (The audience applauds.)

T.V. Zabolotskaya: Excuse me, please, I want to ask along the way, I forgot: a syllable that … It is clear that "consonant + vowel" is an open syllable, but "consonant, sonorous and vowel" is also an open syllable, Yes? In the morning because … Well, a similar Mikhailovich …

AZ: Yes, of course, tra – there is no syllable section between t and p, tr goes together.

TV Zabolotskaya: And this is an open syllable.

A.Z .: Yes. It’s like in Latin: u-tra is an open syllable.

GP Morozova: If we go back to the knots, corners and eels, they all have the first. Are there such examples with and the first?

A.Z .: To find something else with a fluent vowel, the Russian language did not provide us with an opportunity.

G.P. Morozova: Eagle? ..Maria Smirnova, candidate of chemical sciences,Vladimir Ivanov, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences,Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry RAS (Moscow)"Nature" No. 5, 2020

The Society for the Promotion of the Success of Experimental Sciences and Their Practical Applications named after Kh. S. Ledentsov can rightfully be called the first Russian foundation for the support of scientific research. Along with comprehensive assistance to individual researchers, members of the society contributed to the implementation of large strategic projects throughout the country. The Vremennik magazine, published by the society since 1910, contains unique information that reflects the history of the birth of Russian research institutes and some little-known milestones in the development of science and technology in our country.

Vologda merchant of the 1st guild Christopher Semenovich Ledentsov [11]

The foundation of the Russian Academy of Sciences was laid by Peter I back in 1724. Over the course of almost three centuries of the Academy’s existence, its tasks, status and structure have changed significantly. According to the current charter [1], the Russian Academy of Sciences is built on a scientific, sectoral and territorial principle, it coordinates fundamental and exploratory research in the Russian Federation, and also provides scientific support for the activities of more than 250 institutes, united into 13 departments in the fields of science and three regional offices, as well as 15 regional scientific centers. Moreover, until the beginning of the XX century. research institutes in Russia were absent. Accordingly, there were no large research teams united by a common leadership and a single topic. Research and development were carried out mainly in the subject departments of higher educational institutions. The creation of scientific institutions in Russia became possible largely thanks to the Kh. S. Ledentsov Society for the Promotion of the Success of Experimental Sciences and Their Practical Applications *. This society was founded in Moscow in accordance with the will of the Vologda merchant of the 1st guild Christopher Semenovich Ledentsov, approved by the Ministry of Public Education on February 24, 1909, and referred to the joint jurisdiction of the Imperial Moscow University and the Imperial Moscow Technical School [2, 3]. The main purpose of the creation of the society is actually reflected in its very name: the promotion of scientific discoveries, research in the field of natural science, inventions and improvements in the fields of technology, as well as testing in practice and implementing scientific and technical inventions and improvements. This goal was achieved in several ways: a) by giving advice and guidance, as well as by discussing the submitted projects; b) the issuance of reviews on research and discoveries of scientific and technical, material benefits for the implementation of scientific research and inventions, the arrangement of laboratories and other relevant institutions; c) publishing the works of the Society, compiling libraries, arranging public readings, conversations, museums, exhibitions; d) soliciting the admission of persons recommended by the Company to perform special work in educational and auxiliary institutions of the Imperial Moscow University and the Imperial Moscow Technical School; e) organizing the best possible use of discoveries and inventions on conditions agreed in advance with the inventor, so that part of the profit goes to a special fund to promote discoveries and inventions for their implementation and implementation, and part of the profit to strengthen the Society’s funds, and the ratio of these parts profits are set by the general meeting; f) the issuance of medals, prizes and honorary reviews for research and discoveries in the field of science and technology [2, p. 3-4].

Devices with which P.N. Lebedev worked, in an appropriate scale (Vremennik. 1912. Issue 2. P. 70)

Kh. S. Ledentsov himself became the compiler of the draft charter of the society, and together with him the first Russian theoretical physicist N.A.Umov. The list of supported research areas was limited to natural and technical sciences. Interests included: chemistry and biology, physics and meteorology, chemical technology and technology of fibrous substances, mining and metallurgy, human physiology and medical sciences, electrical engineering, aeronautics, railway, construction and architecture, heating, ventilation, machines, tools, devices and apparatus for various purposes, agricultural machines, inventions of a military-sanitary nature and military equipment, the field of crafts, scientific and philosophical questions, engines of all kinds. The motto of the society was the words captured later on the obelisk over the grave of Ledentsov: “Science – Labor – Love – Contentment. Science is a means leading to the possible good of humanity. With the smallest capital, bring the greatest possible benefit to the majority. " The first phrase, together with the portrait of Ledentsov, was captured on diplomas, addresses and medals issued by the society. It is no coincidence that one of the first scientists to whom society provided material support was PN Lebedev, a physicist of rare talent who performed unprecedentedly complex experiments on simple equipment [2, 4–6]. It was from his physics laboratory that the history of the Moscow Scientific Institute, called to lead Russian science, began, an institution in which there will be no students and listeners, but only researchers performing scientific work [7], p. 251]. During Lebedev’s lifetime, the opening of a separate Physics Institute was also envisaged. For this, a special building was built on the Miusskaya Square in Moscow at the expense of the society. In December 1916, after the death of Lebedev, the first research institute in Russia, the Institute of Biophysics and Physics, was opened here. In 1929 it was reorganized into the Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences – the famous FIAN. Several years earlier, the Institute of Physics of the Earth, the Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology, and the Institute of Biophysics separated from it [8].

The funds of the society were used to build and equip IP Pavlov’s laboratory in St. Petersburg [9–11], NE Zhukovsky’s aerodynamic laboratory at Moscow University, a laboratory for testing propellers and models at the Moscow Technical School [4, 11, 12] … The Society financed the works of outstanding chemists ND Zelinsky [2], A. E. Chichibabin [4, 6], L. A. Chugaev [4, 13], V. I. Vernadsky [4], V. I. Grinevetsky [9, 14], published the scientific works of DI Mendeleev [15], II Mechnikov, NA Umov [2]. A biological station was built at the expense of the society at Karadag [15–17]. Periodic financial support was received by the Moscow Society of Nature Experts [18], the Russian Physicochemical Society [15], and the Institute of Experimental Medicine [4].

View of Karadag from the TI Vyazemsky Karadag Scientific Station. Postcard from the beginning of the twentieth century. Archive of the Sludsky family

Thanks to various forms of support for the scientific activities of society in Russia, numerous research projects have been implemented, new research teams and laboratories have been created, which further contributed to the emergence of institutions of the Academy of Sciences, research institutes, universities, research centers, experimental stations, etc. (Table 1).

Table 1. Objects (forms) of support of the Ledentsov Society and scientific organizations created or modernized thanks to this assistance

Having developed a thoughtful approach to supporting individual inventors and scientific teams, the society anticipated the time and actually created a system of startups, in which it financed bringing promising developments and inventions to the stage of industrial production with the preliminary obtaining of appropriate patent protection. To assist researchers, whose activities were approved by the expert commission of the society, in obtaining privileges for inventions and protective certificates, in 1911 the society entered into negotiations with the patent office of V.I. Steininger and L.L. Foss in St. Petersburg with the aim of establishing conditions for the permanent use of their services [9]. In the same year, the representatives of the bureau gave a positive answer and expressed their consent to carry out the orders of the company on preferential terms [2].

It is curious to note that the goal and objectives of the Ledentsov Society are largely similar to those indicated in the corresponding statutory paragraphs of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) and the Russian Science Foundation (RSF) – modern organizations whose activities are aimed at providing financial support for scientific and scientific-technical activities (tab. 2).

Table 2. Comparison of the goals and objectives of the Ledentsov Society, the Federal State Budgetary Institution "Russian Foundation for Basic Research" and the Russian Science Foundation

There were several sources for the formation of the material base of society [3]. First, donations of capital, which could be, according to the will of donors, also inviolable. Secondly, the inviolable capital "named after Kh. S. Ledentsov", which was placed at the disposal of the society in accordance with the spiritual will of the donor. Third, grants and donations from various institutions and individuals. And finally, random receipts. Donors could, if desired, indicate which area of ​​scientific research and inventions and under what conditions the contributions should be used.

A strong financial foundation, full legal independence, freedom of economic activity, extensive ties in the scientific, engineering and business communities allowed for complex implementation projects. This was greatly facilitated by the outstanding personal composition of the society, which included full members, corresponding members and honorary members of the Academy of Sciences, professors of the Imperial Moscow Technical School, Imperial Moscow University, St. Petersburg Technological Institute of Emperor Nicholas I, Electrotechnical Institute of Emperor Alexander III and Moscow Agricultural Institute. institute, as well as directors of large industrial enterprises. This determined a high level of organization of activities, an objective expert assessment of applications, a professional research approach in promoting the implementation of projects, developments, and research.

To obtain competent opinions on a very numerous research and development applications, 15 specialized departments of the expert commission were created, which, according to the published reports of the society, in the period 1909-1915. (information about applications for 1916 and 1917 was not made public) 1,076 applications were considered. Financial support and assistance received 282 applications (26%). The most popular at the beginning of the XX century.